Logistical Innovations

Innovations: Logistical

Decentralized Transit

With congestion one of the most pressing issues facing the global transportation system, SPI feels that its ability to offer low-cost decentralized solutions to the ferry and freight industries that provides one its greatest values.

The following article from The Placemaking Institute offers insight into the decentralized model:

“Evidence underlines that the emergence of hub-and-spoke networks is a transitional form of network development rationalizing limited volumes through a limited number of routes. When traffic becomes sufficient, direct point-to-point services tend to be established as they better reflect the preference of users.”

Source

“Metro areas that have integrated their rail transit into a decentralized network structure are found to enjoy higher riding habit, higher service productivity, and better cost-effectiveness than metro areas with other network structures or modal combinations.”

Source

Transit is moving from its traditional centralized hub-and-spoke model to one that follows the point-to-point (no centralized hub) model, where multiple “nodes” are distributed around a city (examples: Providence, Seattle, Tallahassee, Orlando, Atlanta).

In input/output economic parlance, they are disaggregating clusters by increasingly expanding and diversifying their operations to locations where their investments will be most profitable. Cities that are remodeling their public transit network but are sticking to the hub-and-spoke model are creating X number of hubs throughout the city; thus these hubs are becoming, in effect, nodes (example: Los Angeles).

Advantage of point-to-point system:

It minimizes connections and travel time (the more that passengers use it, the more intuitive it becomes) and increases accessibility (and greater accessibility is good).

Advantage of hub-and-spoke system:

They are simple; new ones can be created easily; scheduling is convenient for passengers since there are few routes, with frequent service, so they may find the network more intuitive. An example of technology that obviates this advantage: The Chicago Transit Authority’s Bus Tracker.

Disadvantages of hub-and-spoke system:

Because the model is centralized, day-to-day operations may be relatively inflexible. Changes at the hub, or even in a single route, could have unexpected consequences throughout the network.

Route scheduling is complicated for the network operator. Scarce resources must be used carefully to avoid starving the hub, and traffic analysis and precise timing are required to keep the hub operating efficiently.

The hub constitutes a bottleneck in the network. Total capacity of the network is limited by the hub’s capacity. Delays at the hub can result in delays throughout the network. Delays at a spoke can also affect the network.

People must pass through the hub before reaching their destination, requiring longer journeys than direct point-to-point trips. This is often desirable for freight, which can benefit from sorting and consolidating operations at the hub, but not for people.
In a spoke-hub network the hub is likely to be a single point of failure.

Conclusion

Filtering people through a hub or a series of hubs is wasteful and inefficient compared to the direct point-to-point model, which can reduce transport emissions and operational costs?

US Intracoastal Shipping Network (ISN)

Port #
ID #
Location
State
East Coast
001E-001EastportME
002E-002CutlerME
003E-003MachiasME
004E-004JonesboroME
005E-005JonesportME
006E-006HarringtonME
007E-007MilbridgeME
008E-008Corea HarborME
009E-009Winter HarborME
010E-010Bar HarborME
011E-011BangorME
012E-012ThomastonME
013E-013South BristolME
014E-014NewcastleME
015E-015RocklandME
016E-016PortlandME
017E-017PortsmouthNH
018E-018HamptonNH
019E-019NewburyportMA
020E-020GloucesterMA
021E-021ManchesterMA
022E-022SalemMA
023E-023LynnMA
024E-024BostonMA
025E-025ProvincetownMA
026E-026FalmouthMA
027E-027New BedfordMA
028E-028Fall RiverMA
029E-029ProvidenceRI
030E-030Quonset PointRI
031E-031NewportRI
032E-032ClintonCT
033E-033New LondonCT
034E-034New HavenCT
035E-035BridgeportCT
036E-036StamfordCT
037E-037MontaukNY
038E-038New RochelleNY
039E-039Stony PointNY
040E-040YonkersNY
041E-041Port of New YorkNY
042E-042Port of TacomaNY
043E-043StapletonNY
044E-044Port ElizabethNJ
045E-045BayonneNJ
046E-046Perth AmboyNJ
047E-047Barnegat BayNJ
048E-048Cape MayNJ
049E-049SalemNJ
050E-050Port NorrisNJ
051E-051CamdenNJ
052E-052RiversideNJ
053E-053BurlingtonNJ
054E-054BristolPA
055E-055TullytownPA
056E-056PhiladelphiaPA
057E-057ChesterPA
058E-058New CastleDE
059E-059WilmingtonDE
060E-060BaltimoreMD
061E-061AnnapolisMD
062E-062Havre de GraceMD
063E-063RichmondVA
064E-064HopewellVA
065E-065Newport NewsVA
066E-066PortsmouthVA
067E-067NorfolkVA
068E-068Virginia BeachVA
069E-069Elizabeth CityNC
070E-070GreenvilleNC
071E-071New BernNC
072E-072BeaufortNC
073E-073Morehead CityNC
074E-074SwansboroNC
075E-075JacksonvilleNC
076E-076WilmingtonNC
077E-077Myrtle BeachSC
078E-078GeorgetownSC
079E-079CharlestonSC
080E-080BeaufortSC
081E-081SavannahGA
082E-082BrunswickGA
083E-083Fernandina BeachFL
084E-084JacksonvilleFL
085E-085LakesideFL
086E-086Green CoveFL
087E-087St AugustineFL
088E-088Daytona BeachFL
089E-089Port CanaveralFL
090E-090Palm BayFL
091E-091Vero BeachFL
092E-092Fort PierceFL
093E-093Jensen BeachFL
094E-094JupiterFL
095E-095StuartFL
096E-096Port SalernoFL
097E-097JupiterFL
098E-098Palm BeachFL
099E-099LantanaFL
100E-100Gulf StreamFL
101E-101Boca RatonFL
102E-102Fort LauderdaleFL
103E-103AventuraFL
104E-104Port EvergladesFL
105E-105MiamiFL
106E-106Coral GablesFL
107E-107Key LargoFL
Gulf Coast
108G-001Fort MyersFL
109G-002Port CharlotteFL
110G-003BradentonFL
111G-004St. PetersburgFL
112G-005TampaFL
113G-006ClearwaterFL
114G-007HudsonFL
115G-008Crystal RiverFL
116G-009Cedar KeyFL
117G-010SuwaneeFL
118G-011Horseshoe BeachFL
119G-012SteinhatcheeFL
120G-013St MarksFL
121G-014CarabelleFL
122G-015EastpointFL
123G-016ApalachicolaFL
124G-017Port St JoeFL
125G-018Panama CityFL
126G-019ValparaisoFL
127G-020PensacolaFL
128G-021Gulf ShoresAL
129G-022MobileAL
130G-023PascagoulaMS
131G-024BiloxiMS
132G-025GulfportMS
133G-026SlidellMS
134G-027New OrleansLA
135G-028Morgan CityLA
136G-029Lake CharlesLA
137G-030Port ArthurTX
138G-031BeaumontTX
139G-032HoustonTX
140G-033GalvestonTX
141G-034FreeportTX
142G-035Port LavacaTX
143G-036Corpus ChristiTX
144G-037BrownsvilleTX
West Coast
145W-001BellinghamWA
146W-002EverettWA
147W-003BremertonWA
148W-004SeattleWA
149W-005TacomaWA
150W-006OlympiaWA
151W-007Grays HarborWA
152W-008KalamaWA
153W-009LongviewWA
154W-010VancouverWA
155W-011PortlandOR
156W-012AstoriaOR
157W-013NewportOR
158W-014Coos BayOR
159W-015Port OrfordOR
160W-016Gold BeachOR
161W-017BrookingsOR
162W-018Crescent CityCA
163W-019Humboldt BayCA
164W-020SacramentoCA
165W-021StocktonCA
166W-022MendocinoCA
167W-023PittsburgCA
168W-024AntiochCA
169W-025Rio VistaCA
170W-026Bodega BayCA
171W-027VallejoCA
172W-028San RafaelCA
173W-029SausalitoCA
174W-030Foster CityCA
175W-031AlamedaCA
176W-032HaywardCA
177W-033RichmondCA
178W-034OaklandCA
179W-035San FranciscoCA
180W-036South San FranciscoCA
181W-037San JoseCA
182W-038PacificaCA
183W-039Half Moon BayCA
184W-040MontereyCA
185W-041Santa CruzCA
186W-042Morro BayCA
187W-043Pismo BeachCA
188W-044Santa BarbaraCA
189W-045Port HuenemeCA
190W-046Los AngelesCA
191W-047Long BeachCA
192W-048Newport BeachCA
193W-049Dana PointCA
194W-050San ClementaCA
195W-051EncinitasCA
196W-052OceansideCA
197W-053La JollaCA
198W-054San DiegoCA

Washington State Ferry System

New Ferry Times

The Washington State Ferry System (WSF) transports 23 million passengers a year – roughly 6 million of which are passengers without vehicles.

Current Routes

WSF uses 9 ferries to service 20 destinations operating at an average speed of 5 mph. Due to the high cost of building traditional ferry terminals, they remain limited in number relative to the vast area WSF serves. This leads to a hub and spoke routing system which is highly inefficient and results in the type of congestion and pollution like that seen in Seattle. (see RED lines below).

WSF Map

Decentralization via Seaphantoms

One method to counter this hub and spoke model would be for the WSF to expand its fleet to include Seaphantoms, thus providing commuters with better service in terms of lost personal time, additional departure times and destinations closer to their workplace. (see BLUE lines above).

In addition to the significant savings in capital and operating costs per ferry per passenger, the community would benefit from substantially reduced pollution and congestion as well.

Cost Comparison

Equivalent Cost/Return

With the current total cost of a traditional 2,000 passenger/144 vehicle ferry nearing the $180 million mark, a better option might be to acquire 60 $3 million Seaphantom SP54s for the same amount, giving the operator much more flexibility in terms of departure times and destinations while simultaneously lowering fuel costs and other operating expenses for walk-ons.

Cycle Times

The cycle time of an average ferry with a transit distance of eleven miles, the cycle time for that vessel running at the customary 5.5mph is 2hrs plus another hour of load-on time resulting in a three hour cycle. Assuming a conservative cycle time for Seaphantom 54s running at 60mph to be 40 minutes, SPI can operate five cycles in the time the traditional ferry finishes one.

SP54 Equivalence

LOGISTICAL INNOVATIONS : SP54 Equivalence
CyclesCapacityPaxUnitsCapital Cost
1200020100300 M
220002050150 M
320002034102 M
42000202575 M

Using the above chart, a ratio of five cycles to one would afford the opportunity to use only 20 Seaphantom SP54s to transport the same number of passengers as one 2,000 passenger ferry in the same amount of time. With a cost of $3 million each, the 20 phantoms would result in a total capital cost of $60 million or one third the cost of the $180 million ferry.

SP72 Equivalence

LOGISTICAL INNOVATIONS : SP72 Equivalence
CyclesCapacityPaxUnitsCapital Cost
120005040280 M
220005020140 M
32000501498 M
42000501070 M
5200050856 M

Using the above chart again, a ratio of five cycles to one would afford the opportunity to use only 8 Seaphantom SP72s to transport the same number of passengers as one 2,000 passenger ferry in the same amount of time. With a cost of $7 million each, the 20 phantoms would result in a total capital cost of $56 million or one third the cost of the $180 million ferry.


Additional Cost Savings

With Seaphantoms handling commuters, the size and cost of the remaining auto ferries could be reduced as well, lowering WSF’s capital and operating costs still further.